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高中英语任务型写作互批教学初探

高中英语任务型写作互批教学初探
      何仕中
摘要:根据《高中英语课程标准》,新课程把高中英语写作界定为真正意义上的写作,共有4个级别(6至9级)的目标要求。新课程对高中英语写作的技能目标反映了如下特点:注重交际,要求学生的写作遵循英语国家的文化习俗和交际准则;重视内容,力求使表达生动;形式多样,培养学生收集、整理和加工材料及修改的能力。针对广东高考英语作文的改革,(由1篇改为2篇,基础写作和任务型写作)及我校英语任务型写作教学中的现状,笔者进行了学生互批写作教学活动的尝试。
关键词:高中英语  任务型写作  互批  学生  小组  
一、高中生目前英语写作现状
目前高中学生在写作上普遍存在词汇量少,时态混淆,句型单一,拼写错误和病句等诸多问题。尽管老师花很多时间进行批改,但效果不明显。究其原因,英语写作教学长期以来都重复着同一种模式:老师布置写作内容—学生完成上交—教师批改—发回给学生—评讲。这种传统模式的写作教学导致师生间的信息传递大多数是教师的单向灌输,使得英语作文教学枯燥乏味,教师包揽了许多本可由学生主持和负责的活动。教师在学生作文本上密密麻麻的修改令学生对作文感到索然无味,很多学生根本不愿在作文本上多看上一眼,自信心和写作爱好受到打击。
二、作文互批的操作过程
1.科学组建互批小组
学生作文互批活动的主要形式是建立互批小组,以学生活动为主体,通过学生在批改中的相互沟通、交流、相互启发、相互补充,分享知识和经验,从而达到共识、共享、共进的一种活动过程。科学组建互批小组是保证互批活动顺利进行的关键。互批小组的划分应根据学生的语言组织能力、英语水平和综合素质等分成A、B、C 、D共4人,安排在一起,组成四人互批小组,坐在前后位置。 
2.互批小组的合理分工
为提高互批的效率,合理的分工成为重要的部分,教师可先选派写作水平好、组织能力强的学生担任组长,负责组织和主持工作;中等生担任互批小组的主要批改工作,差生记录结果等;经过一段时间的操练后可根据需要进行小组重组或组内角色的转换,使每个互批组成员都能从不同的角色上得到体验和锻炼。
3.制订互批标准
英语文章由单词、词组、短语和句子组成,体现文章内容的走向;而文章的中心思想、作者的写作意图和过渡词、过渡句的运用,则体现文章意义的走向。两者紧密联系。根据这一原则,需要分阶段制订互批的标准:
第一阶段:看概括能力。任务型写作要求用30个词概括,一般以记叙文为主,所以互批过程中主要检查有没有五要素,即who, what, when, where, how ;还要检查人称的使用等。满分5分。批改标准如下:
缺少五要素的酌情扣1到2分;没有用第三人称的扣1分;表达自己观点的扣1分;整体感觉不好的扣1到2分。
第二阶段:看内容。互批过程中修改语言基础,把握基本用法,满分10分。批改标准如下:
词汇方面:单词拼写错误较多的扣2分;中式英语多的扣2分。
时态、语态等方面:主谓不一致的扣2分;时态语态混淆的扣2分;谓语与非谓语混淆的扣2分。
第三阶段:看语言的运用。修正文章中的过渡词和字词以及句型的不足,满分10分。标准如下:
1,看是否整体把握好文章,是否紧扣中心,没有的酌情扣4分。
2,看是否正确使用过渡词,如however, besides, therefore,moreover, what’s more 等,没有的扣4分。
3,看全文是否有“亮点”。如好词好句和高级词汇。每用一个加1分。
另外,书写不规范,卷面不整洁的扣2分。
三、互批活动的操作模式
总原则:互批在一节课40分钟内完成,其中写作前“热身”2分钟,写作18分钟,批改15分钟,点评5分钟。首先把整个班级分成若干组,每组由四名学生组成。教师先针对所给的题目引导学生进行brainstorm,再进行写作,然后进行互批,在互批之前,教师可对一些学生的文章在课堂上当场批改,说明批改时应注意的问题,最后进行点评。下面以一个互批组为例说明第一阶段的操作:
第一步:由互批组成员A在本组中朗读同伴B的文章,其余组员按照互批标准初步打分并署名。大声阅读使A直接参与到互批活动中,使他有了一个表达自己个性语言的机会,同时激起了参与的兴趣,同时口头陈述保证了语言的输入。
第二步:C负责挑毛病,看看有没有单词方面的拼写错误如throught, therey,中式英语句子如I very like go shopping. There have many students like blogs.找出时态、语态运用方面的错误如He have two sister.等。与此同时,D可以给C进行有关B作文内容及A的发言进行解释说明并由C负责记录,这样C能参与活动本身,增加了主人翁意识,逐渐产生爱好,增强写作能力,也能动手写作。期间,教师可巡视全班或参与某个小组的讨论,了解情况并有针对性地进行指导,并及时解决学生碰到的困难。
第三步:B对同组成员的反馈进行修改和文章的修饰以及美化,并适当调整要点顺序和添加信息,尽快完成对文章内容的最终定稿,最后上交给老师。
第四步:老师投影其中一篇作文,由组长大声朗读,各互批组组长打分,然后各组进行讨论,教师先让已经讨论好的小组代表发言,进行全班交流,其他各组做出补充。同时对各组的观点做出公正的评价,要善于发现各互批组的可取之处,尤其要多鼓励差生,接纳他们的个性观点。
第一阶段批改活动结束后,学生了解了一定的语言基础知识,再进行第二阶段即语言运用方面的提升操练。操作内容如下:
1、找出高级词汇,好的短语或句子,底下画线。
2、发掘文章中的连接词和过渡词,标上波浪线。
3、找文章的亮点,如:倒装句,强调句,定语从句,with的复合结构等。
下面以2011年广州一模任务型写作为例说明互批前后的情况。
题目:阅读下面的短文,然后按照要求写一篇150词左右的英语短文。
During a recent Senior Three English lesson, the teacher caught Xiao Li, a female student, busily typing messages on her cell-phone. To the teacher’s surprise, Xiao Li wasn’t just texting her friends the latest gossip. She was actually blogging about what was being taught in the classroom, sharing her opinions about the information and material with her classmates and other students.
The case aroused a heated discussion among teachers and students city-wide. Miss Li, an English teacher from another nearby school said, “I am amazed at how creative the students can be when writing on their blogs. To me it’s a great way for students to improve their writing skills while writing about personal feelings and experiences.” But other teachers are worried that blog-addiction may interfere with their students’ study.
A supporter and classmate of Xiao Li said, “We love her blog! We all read it each day and can’t wait to see what she writes about next. Her interesting stories and great suggestions on study really help to motivate us. And it adds a little fun to our stressful life.” Another student blogger admitted that he often works late into the night, writing his blog and responding to comments posted there. “Sometimes I don’t even have time to finish my homework. I can’t help myself. I really have a lot to say.”
【写作内容】
1)以约30个词概括这篇短文的主要内容;
2)然后以约120个词就“中学生博客”的问题进行议论,内容包括:
a)博客的利与弊; b)你对中学生博客的态度; c)关于此问题的建议。
实施互批前的一篇学生习作:
Nowadays, Internet is becoming an important part in everyone’s life, especially for the high school students. According to a recent research , it said that nearly all of them are use blogs. 
In our daily life, middle school students use blogs often, it become controversail. First, people think use blogs is a good ways for them share with others. Second, throught doing that , students can also make friends from the world whom have the same ambitions. But, they very like the blogs and becomes addicted in it. So it is also very common among young people. They spend a lot of time on it and this will have bad effects on their studies.
    I think we should make use of bolgs .Try our best to do doog things throught blogs.  交由互批组打分,得分8分。
经过第一阶段互批修改如下:
With the development of technology, Internet is becoming a necessary part of everyone’s life, especially high school students. Recent research shows that nearly all of them are using blogs. 
The use of blogs for high school students is definitely one of the controversial problem in our world today. On the one hand, people say that using blogs is a very convenient way for young people to share their ideas with the world. What’ more, through doing that, students can also make friends from all over the world whom have the same ambitions .However, as we know, Internet addiction is also very common among young people. They could spend too much time on their blogs and this will have negative effects on their academic side.
As far as I’m concerned, we students should focus our attention on our studies and use blogs at proper time. It is in this way that we can make good use of our best invention----blogs.
交由互批组打分,得分15分。第二阶段经互批组批改,教师点评后的文章如下:
With the development of technology, Internet is playing a more and more important role in our daily life, especially high school students,who use it most of ime. A recent research shows that nearly all of the high school students are using blogs. 
The use of blogs for high school students is definitely one of the controversial problem in our world today. On the one hand, people say that using blogs is a very convenient way for young people to share their ideas with the world. Moreover, through doing that, students can also make friends from all over the world whom have the same ambitions .However, as we know, Internet addiction is also very common among young people. They could spend too much time on their blogs and this will have negative effects on their academic side.
As far as I’m concerned, it can be difficult to tell good information from bad since there are advantages and disadvantages. So ,as students, we should use blogs at proper time and in a suitable way as well. Only in this way can blogs better serve for our life, study and work.   经过各组讨论,最后得分为21分。
四、任务型写作互批教学的反思
凡事贵在坚持, 经过一年来推行课堂上互批写作,我班学生的写作水平有了较大提高,笔者任教的两个美术班由学期初平均分9.25分提高到市统考的12.60; 学生之间互相促进,取长补短; 同时, 互批使教师从繁重的作文批改中解脱出来,师生共同受益。但另一方面,学生互批活动费时费力,难于操作, 需要课前的精心准备, 同时又受所授班级学生的英语基础的限制。因此,如何构建更好的写作互批活动,使其和英语教学更好地结合起来,将是以后教学中努力的方向。

参考文献:
1.《普通高中英语课程标准》(实验) 人民教育出版社,2003
2.《英语写作教学理论与实践》穆林华  张玲溧 中国青年出版社
3.《英语写作教学》[M]. Arthur Brookes,Peter Grundy.人民教育出版社,2000.

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